This book aims to examine the effects of the Celali Revolts -a series of rebellions in Anatolia- in the 17th century Ottoman transformation period. The transformation period refers to a period in which the empire experienced important challenges and changes in military and financial institutions due to the effects of local developments and external events during the transition from the 16th to the 17th century. In this book, the effects of Celali Revolts are examined concentrating especially on demography and economy by using the concept of “the Celali Effect”. The short and long run effects of these revolts are examined by focusing on the regions Northern and Central Anatolia, which were heavily affected by these revolts. The destructive effects of the Celali Revolts are dealt with between 1576 and 1643 owing to the availability of the case studies and Ottoman archival sources namely, the mukataa defters (tax-farming registers), iltizam talepnameleri (records of demands for tax-farms), and mühimme registers (records of imperial decrees). Moreover, the reports and letters of the French Embassy are also used since they provide important information that one can use to follow the destructive effects of the Celali Revolts.