Turkey and the Middle East have had a significant role in every period of world history. Moreover, throughout history, world powers have played similarly significant roles in this region. In the aftermath of the First World War, when boundaries were being redrawn, and new states were being established, the peoplesin this region were not consulted.A glance over history shows us that the Middle East, and Turkey in particular, still holds great importance for world powers such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and China.Once more, boundaries are being drawn in the regionwithout the consultation of the peoples who live there. Again, the focus is on who will take over and control the resources. A perception operation revolving around new maps of the Middle East is still in process. The political, economic, cultural and ideological plan behind these mapsis still in operation. The boundaries that have been drawn reflect the ethnic and sectarian differences in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria, and create the perception that these states may disintegrate through federation, gradual division or autonomy to form new countries based oncultural,ethnic and sectarian differences. Thus, the fundamental issue of the 21st Century is the boundaries in the Middle East. Indeed, the 21st Century appears to be the century of Middle Eastern issues. Boundaries will change, but how? That is the question.